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Do you know CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium? These two methods are currently the most important representatives of post-quantum cryptography. They are therefore considered safe from quantum computers – in complete contrast to the proven crypto algorithms RSA and Diffie-Hellman, which are currently used billions of times on the Internet.
Quantum computing is far from practical, but technology is advancing, so the goal must be to move to post-quantum methods before billions of security vulnerabilities appear. CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium could play a central role in this. The former can replace Diffie-Hellman and RSA key exchange, the latter take the place of RSA signatures.
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Klaus Schmeh is a consultant at Atos Cybersecurity Products, author and blogger (www.schmeh.org).
Like RSA and Diffie-Hellman, the two CRYSTALS methods are asymmetric crypto-algorithms. Symmetric methods such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), on the other hand, do not play a major role in the post-quantum discussion, since they are generally less susceptible to quantum computers. You can make them quantum safe just by increasing the key length.